Possíveis novas aplicações
Verificou-se que o Hipoclorito de Sódio, a concentrações < ou = 0.005%, pode estimular a divisão celular de fibroblastos, ao contrário do que se verifica para maiores concentrações, em que exibe efeitos citotóxicos profundos. Este estudo poderá servir de base para que no futuro se use estas concentrações para renovação de células e tecidos.
Da mesma maneira em que o hipoclorito de sódio é usado na inactivação de retrovírus em superfícies ambientais e topicamente, poderá ser usado, em menores concentrações, de modo a reduzir a carga vírica de um indivíduo infectado.
Visto o vírus da SIDA (HIV) ser um retrovírus, esta poderá ser uma área promissora que deverá ser explorada.
Tratamento de peritonite supurativa
A oxidação electroquímica indirecta é um método de tratamento que consiste na introdução na cavidade abdominal de uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio, entre outras. É um processo seguro e de simples execução, com acção activa no processo inflamatório da cavidade abdominal, podendo por isso ser largamente usado no tratamento da peritonite.
Tratamento de pielonefrite, cistite e uretrite
Com a oxidação electroquímica por injecção intraperitoneal de hipoclorito de sódio, os sinais morfológicos da inflamação urinária e renal começam a desaparecer a partir do 1º dia de tratamento.
Growth-altering effects of sodium hypochlorite in cultured human dermal fibroblasts.
Hidalgo E, Dominguez C
Life Sci 2000 Aug 67:1331-44
Sodium hypochlorite, the most widely used antimicrobial active chlorine compound in chemical disinfection, is little used as an antiseptic in clinical practice. This study aimed to assess the capacity of hypochlorite to alter human dermal fibroblast growth in vitro in relation to the concentration and exposure time. Effects of decreasing concentrations of hypochlorite (0.5%-0.00025%) on fibroblast adherence capacity and proliferation, according to varying exposure times and fetal calf serum (FCS) concentrations were investigated combining XTT assay, which provides cytochemical quantification of metabolically-active cell number, and total cell protein content, an indirect method for assessing substrate-adhered cell number. Initial cytotoxicity was produced at 0.0075% hypochlorite within contact time of two hours, provoking concentration-dependent cell detachment. From 0.1% upwards, NaOCl exerted a profound cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts. At later stages (4 h) and concentrations > or = 0.01% hypochlorite produced dose-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction: cell survival progressively diminished from 71% to 10%. Cytotoxic effects were not significantly affected by exposure-time periods, probably because maximum chlorine is released within the first four hours. Hypochlorite concentrations from 0.005% to 0.00025% were found to have no inhibitory effects on cell growth; in fact, they appear to exhibit the opposite effect. Increments in protein content found after 24 h exposure ranged from 30% to 120% above control values. Hypochlorite is highly cytotoxic for fibroblasts at concentrations > or = 0.01% provoking concentration-dependent loss of cell adherence capacity and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, a mitogenic effect was observed with concentrations < or = 0.005% which supports NaOCl as a source growth-promoting activity in cultured human fibroblasts. Hypochlorite proved to be a highly reactive molecule which inhibits or stimulates cell division according to the concentration.
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used to inactivate retroviruses topically and on environmental surfaces. This proposal establishes the thesis that sodium hypochlorite and its related oxygen free radicals can be administered in minute quantities in vivo to achieve a reduction in retroviral titer within the infected individual. Published reports of animal studies and accidental sodium hypochlorite infusion in much greater concentrations have indicated that the protein depletion and oxidation of sulfhydryl compounds is reversible and possibly preventable by administration of disulfide reducing agents. Various methods of infusion can include the ex vivo retroviral inactivation of plasma utilizing extracorporeal circulation through a continuous centrifugal plasma separator. The utilization of infusion of low-concentration sodium hypochlorite dialysate for retroviral inactivation merits immediate experimental study. Chlorinated tap-water and table salt ingestion must also be among the environmental factors studied for correlation to HIV infection.
The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite was assessed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suspended in low (8% v/v) or high (80% v/v) concentrations of serum or in a high (80%) concentration of blood. In the presence of 8% serum, 100 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture inactivated 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml within 30 s. When the test mixture contained 80% serum, 500 p.p.m. available chlorine inactivated more than 4 log TCID50 HIV/ml in 1-2 min. Lower concentrations of available chlorine were unable to inactivate the virus completely. In the presence of 80% blood, 1000 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture was unable to inactivate 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml, although 2500 p.p.m. available chlorine was able to inactivate at least 1.5 log TCID50 HIV/ml. In all test mixtures, the chlorine rapidly became combined and thus less active. Our results emphasise the importance of cleaning prior to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite since it may prove to be ineffective in the presence of high levels of organic matter. In cases where prior cleaning is impossible, care must be taken to use the higher recommended concentration (a minimum of 10,000 p.p.m. available chlorine).
[Effects of indirect
electrochemical blood oxidation by sodium hypochlorite solution on the course
on inflammatory process in the kidneys and urinary tract]
Danilkov AP, Ivashchenko VV, Kirpatovskiĭ VI, Kudriavtsev IuV, Lavrinova LN
Urol Nefrol (Mosk) 1998 May-Jun :25-7
The action of indirect electrochemical blood oxidation with 0.06% solution of sodium hypochlorite on kidney and urinary inflammation was studied in experiments on 60 non-inbred rat females of 200-250 g body weight. The animals were intravesically infected through the catheter with E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa. 3 days later, after histological verification of acute pyelonephritis, ureteritis, cystitis, the animals were injected intraperitoneally 1.0 and 2.0 ml daily of sodium hypochlorite solution (control animals) or 0.89% solution of sodium chloride. Though no reliable decrease of the bacterial contamination was achieved, histologically, there was a marked reduction in morphological signs of the inflammation in the kidneys, ureter and urinary bladder on the first day after beginning of electrochemical blood oxidation with solution of sodium hypochlorite in experimental groups. In experimental group rats morphological signs of urinary and renal inflammation for both infections disappeared on days 7 and 10, respectively. In the control animals morphological signs of the inflammation remained after 10 days. Moreover, purulent inflammation was registered in the controls infected with Ps. aeruginosa.
Sodium hypochlorite in the treatment of suppurative peritonitis
Vestn Khir Im I I Grek 1993 May-Jun 150:18-21
The method of indirect electrochemical oxidation was used in treatment of 34 patients with acute purulent peritonitis. Twenty patients treated by the traditional method were taken as a group of comparison. The method consists in the elevation of sensitivity of the polyresistant microflora to antibiotics after the introduction into the abdominal cavity of a warmed to 37 degrees C 0.06--0.08% solution of sodium hypochlorite (100-400 ml), buffered with sodium bicarbonate 0.4 g NaHO3 per 100 ml. A combined application of buffered sodium hypochlorite with antibiotics to patients with local, diffuse and general peritonitis resulted in shorter average terms of treatment correspondingly to (9 +/- 0.9), (13 +/- 1.3), (16 +/- 1.9) days against (17.2 +/- 2.4), (25.0 +/- 3.3), (34.7 +/- 4.1) days after traditional methods of treatment. Only 2 patients died of 13 patients with general peritonitis (15.38%). Thus, modelling the processes of oxidative detoxication and phagocytosis with using a transmitter of acute oxygen--an electrolysis solution of sodium hypochlorite is a practically safe and technically simple method of the active action on the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity, so it may be widely used in treatment